An average Human cell (diploid) contains about 6.4 billion base pairs of DNA divided among 46 chromosomes. The length of each base pair is about 0.34 nm. Therefore, if the DNA molecule in a diploid cell were laid out end to end, the total length of DNA would be approximately 2 meters. Continue reading How a 2 meters long DNA is fitted into a 2 micrometers Nucleus?
It is a well-known fact that DNA acts as a genetic material in most of the organisms on this planet earth. However, it is also clear that RNA also acts a genetic material, but only in some viruses (for example, Tobacco Mosaic Viruses, QB Bacteriophage, etc.).
Continue reading Why Nature Preferred DNA over RNA?
Antibiotics have been around for many years and if your child is 5 years or younger than it is evident that you may get confronted to antibiotics 4 to 5 times in a year and may have fears and doubts about antibiotics. Moreover, many of you may have a habit of purchasing medicines on an old prescription. These habits are not good for your child’s health. However, if antibiotics are used wisely, they can provide significant benefits.
Southern Blotting is an elegant technique that can be used to identify the locations of genes and other DNA sequences on restriction fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. This technique is named after the Edwin Southern (1975) who developed it. Continue reading What is Southern Blotting? How it is used to identify Specific DNA Sequences?
Biotic community is an assemblage of populations of interacting plants, animals and microorganisms living in the particular habitat. A biotic community is dynamic and undergoes changes with the passage of time. Continue reading What is Biotic Community?
In Industrial Microbiology, microbes are used to synthesise a number of products valuable to human beings. This Industry has provided products that have profoundly changed our lives and life spans. These products include beverages, food additives, products for human and animal health, and biofuels. Continue reading 11 Industrial Products that are derived from Microbes.
Antibiotic Resistance is a term that appears to be like some super terms used in some science fiction movies. But this term is something from which we should be afraid of because antibiotic resistance and spread of drug-resistant pathogens are one of the most serious and dangerous threats to public health in this 21st century. Continue reading What are the different Causes of Antibiotic Resistance?
The phenomenon of a sudden increase in the organic and inorganic nutrient supply in an aquatic environment is referred to as Eutrophication. These nutrients are basically nitrogen and phosphorous, and they favour overgrowth of algae and grazing bacteria, which then results in oxygen depletion. Continue reading What is Eutrophication? What are its Causes & Effects?
The cells of an embryo get their roles when they are capable of differentiating autonomously in a neutral environment such as petri dish or test tube. (the environment is neutral with respect to the development pathway.) This process of giving different roles to embryonic cells is called Cell Specification. Continue reading How do cells in Embryo get their Roles to Play?
In 1868, T. H. Huxley described protoplasm as the “physical basis of life”. Protoplasm is a clear, colourless and jelly-like substance which seemed to make up the contents of the cell. It was also described as “substance of life” or “living material”. Continue reading What is the physical basis of life?