How a 2 meters long DNA is fitted into a 2 micrometers Nucleus?

An average Human cell (diploid) contains about 6.4 billion base pairs of DNA divided among 46 chromosomes. The length of each base pair is about 0.34 nm. Therefore, if the DNA molecule in a diploid cell were laid out end to end, the total length of DNA would be approximately 2 meters. Continue reading How a 2 meters long DNA is fitted into a 2 micrometers Nucleus?

How can we fight against Antibiotic Resistance?

Several strategies can be used to prevent the emergence of Antibiotic Resistance.

  1. We can use antibiotics in reasonably high concentrations to destroy susceptible bacteria and most spontaneous mutants, which may arise during the treatment period. Continue reading How can we fight against Antibiotic Resistance?

How do Bacteria become Resistant to Antibiotics?

Bacteria often become resistant through different kinds of mechanisms. One kind of mechanism is never confined to any specific class of antibiotics. Different resistance mechanisms are used in different bacteria to confront the same antibiotics.
Continue reading How do Bacteria become Resistant to Antibiotics?

How Diseases are Emerging and Re-Emerging?

Fifty years ago people believed that the war of humankind against the infectious diseases was virtually over and science had won over infectious diseases such as pneumonia, whooping cough, polio and small pox with the help of antibiotics, vaccines, and some aggressive public health campaigns.

Continue reading How Diseases are Emerging and Re-Emerging?