transpiration-from-leaves
Plants
roles-of-free-radicals-aging
Health

Free Radicals: What is their role in making us old?

From the beginning of time, humans have always been concerned about aging and have tried every bit of ability to defy this process. Many of us believe that aging results from the repetitive damage caused to our body cells due to radicals produced by the everyday metabolic activities that usually sustain our life also create “metabolic stress”. But, recent studies are proving this theory of aging wrong, and are saying that so called – “evil radicals” are not so evil. […]

single-nucleotide-polymorphisms
Biology

What are SNPs? Why are Scientists interested in them?

A most common and important source of genetic variability is known to be present uniformly throughout the genome is termed Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms or SNPs. Interest in SNPs lies in the fact that these polymorphisms may be responsible for the differences in disease susceptibility, drug metabolism and response to environmental factors between individuals. Even, if they are not directly responsible for the disease, they serve as genetic markers for a nearby locus that might be responsible. […]

packaging-of-dna-inside-cell-nucleus
Biology

How a 2 meters long DNA is fitted into a 2 micrometers Nucleus?

An average Human cell (diploid) contains about 6.4 billion base pairs of DNA divided among 46 chromosomes. The length of each base pair is about 0.34 nm. Therefore, if the DNA molecule in a diploid cell were laid out end to end, the total length of DNA would be approximately 2 meters.Since the diameter of a typical cell nucleus is only 10 ΞΌm, it is obvious for us to know that how is it possible to fit 2 meters of DNA in such small space without getting tangled up. The answer lies in the remarkable manner in which a DNA molecule is packaged. […]