Category Archives: Biology

Biology all the divisions of natural sciences which examines various processes related to the living world. Biology include anatomy, cell biology, physiology, genetics, biochemistry, evolution and many other subjects.

Bacterial Conjugation – A Primitive form of Sexual Reproduction.

Several Bacteria (like Escherichia Coli) exhibit a form of sexual reproduction called Bacterial Conjugation. It is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells. It was discovered by Nobel Prize winners, Joshua Lederberg and Edward L. Tatum in 1946.

Continue reading Bacterial Conjugation – A Primitive form of Sexual Reproduction.

Sexual Reproduction – An Important Innovation of the Early Protists.​

The Kingdom Protista includes diverse kinds of predominantly water-dwelling unicellular eukaryotic microorganism. Protists, like Monerans, have an immense reproductive potential. In an optimal environment, they may reproduce several times a day. This is mainly by asexual reproduction, using the process of mitosis. However, they also reproduce sexually. Continue reading Sexual Reproduction – An Important Innovation of the Early Protists.​

​Why are some fungi grouped under “fungi imperfecti”?

There are over 100,000 species of fungi. Some of them are one-celled like the yeasts; others are complex like mushrooms and some of them are called imperfect fungi. Fungi are the major decomposers (besides bacteria) and some parasitic forms of fungi may also cause diseases in plants and animals. Continue reading ​Why are some fungi grouped under “fungi imperfecti”?

Why Blue Green Algae are not included in Plantae Kingdom?

Blue Green Algae also called as Cyanobacteria are one of the most successful organisms on this planet. They are gram-negative (do not take up gram stain) and photosynthetic microorganism. They have successfully survived for over 3 billion years on our planet earth. Initially, they were classified Plantae due to their ability to photosynthesis, but later they were moved to the Monera Kingdom. Continue reading Why Blue Green Algae are not included in Plantae Kingdom?

Euglena – A Protist with Flexible Lifestyle

Euglena is a large Genus of unicellular Protists, which belongs to phylum, Euglenaceae. Thousands of species of Euglena are present in ponds, lakes, streams and also in the waterlogged area such as marshes. Continue reading Euglena – A Protist with Flexible Lifestyle

Why is the Two-Kingdom Classification System Inadequate?

We can easily distinguish a living animal from a living plant in our surroundings. We do not find any difficulty in identifying an animal as long as we see it moving, eating and alive. When it comes to plants, we have an image of a structure having spread out appearance with green parts like leaves in our mind. So, to keep it as simple as it was, Carolus Linnaeus classified all the organisms of the world into two Kingdoms i.e. Plantae and Animalia. Continue reading Why is the Two-Kingdom Classification System Inadequate?

Personal Genomics: Gene Sequencing & Analysis in India.

In recent times, the people of India have been heard talking about gene sequencing, gene editing, gene sequencing and many other similar terms. It seems like, they are now getting introduced to the idea and principle behind personal genomics. Continue reading Personal Genomics: Gene Sequencing & Analysis in India.

How do cells in Embryo get their Roles to Play?

The cells of an embryo get their roles when they are capable of differentiating autonomously in a neutral environment such as petri dish or test tube. (the environment is neutral with respect to the development pathway.) This process of giving different roles to embryonic cells is called Cell Specification. Continue reading How do cells in Embryo get their Roles to Play?