Category Archives: Health

Health Sciences are applied sciences that address the use of science, technolog, engineering or mathematics in the delivery of healthcare to human beings and animals. It covers all the aspects of public health, diseases and health treatments. Health Sciences includes wellness, medicine, nutrition, skin care, sexual health, cancer, mental health etc.

What is Carbon monoxide poisoning?

Carbon monoxide is one of the most serious air pollutants. It is highly poisonous to humans because of its ability to block the delivery of oxygen to organs and tissues. Carbon monoxide poisoning mostly occurs in winters, when we use coal, wood, and other carbon-based fuel to produce heat in our homes. So in this article, we will learn what is carbon monoxide and why it is poisonous?

What is Carbon monoxide?

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless and odorless gas. Automobile exhausts and cigarettes are the major sources of CO production. Other sources such as incomplete burning of coal, petrol, firewood, etc. also produce carbon monoxide.

carbon monoxideAutomobiles are a major source of CO.

What is Carbon monoxide poisoning?

Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs when we breathe an excessive amount of carbon monoxide into our lungs. In the lungs, it mixes with our blood. When too much carbon monoxide gets mixed up with blood, it starts replacing the oxygen present in our red blood cells. This can cause serious damage to our brain, heart and can even cause death.

Why Carbon monoxide is poisonous?

Human blood contains hemoglobin in red blood cells. Hemoglobin is an iron-containing protein that gives a characteristic red color to our blood cells. Iron in hemoglobin binds to oxygen and then carries it around in our bloodstream.

But, when the concentration of carbon monoxide builds up in our blood, it binds to hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin. It does so by binding to iron atoms in hemoglobin. Carboxyhemoglobin is about 300 times more stable than the oxygen-hemoglobin complex. That means once carbon monoxide attaches, it is difficult to release.

In our blood, when the concentration of carboxyhemoglobin reaches about 3-4 percent, the oxygen-transporting capacity of blood is greatly reduced. This oxygen deficiency in our blood can cause headaches, dizziness, nervousness, and vomiting.

Moreover, large exposure to carbon monoxide can cause loss of consciousness, seizures, cardiovascular disorder, or death. In pregnant women, CO poisoning can induce premature birth.

So, now you know What is Carbon monoxide? And, Why carbon monoxide is poisonous?  So that is all for now, meet you in my next article. Keep Reading, Keep Exploring, and Keep Sharing your Knowledge, and above all BE CURIOUS. 🙂


Free Radicals: What is their role in making us old?

From the beginning of time, people have tried to understand aging and processes associated with the biology of aging. Many scientists believe that aging results from the repetitive damage caused to our body cells. The everyday metabolic activities that usually sustain our life but also create “metabolic stress”, which over time, results in damage to our bodies. Some of these metabolic activities result in the production of radicals and which may cause harmful damage to our body cells. Continue reading Free Radicals: What is their role in making us old?

What are Emerging and Re-Emerging Diseases?

Fifty years ago people believed that the war of humankind against infectious diseases was virtually over. They thought that science had won over diseases such as pneumonia, whooping cough, polio, and smallpox with the help of antibiotics, vaccines, and some aggressive public health campaigns. But, after the 1980s, emerging and re-emerging diseases have caused havoc.

In the last 30 years, at least, a dozen new diseases have emerged and traditional diseases that were gone are re-emerging. In these years, the world has seen the global spread of AIDS, the resurgence of Tuberculosis, and the appearance of new enemies like hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, hepatitis C and E, Ebola virus, Lyme disease, etc.

What are Emerging Diseases?

Emerging diseases are the diseases that

  • Have not occurred in humans before. This type of emergence is very rare.
  • Have occurred previously but affected only small numbers of people in isolated places. For example, AIDS and Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever.
  • Have occurred throughout human history but has only recently been recognized as a distinct disease due to a causative agent. For example, Lyme disease and Gastric Ulcers.

So, we can conclude that the emerging diseases are the diseases caused by some newly identified and previously unknown causative agents. 

What are Re-emerging Diseases?

Re-emerging diseases are the diseases that once were major health problems globally or in a particular country and then declined dramatically, but are again becoming a health problem for a significant proportion of the population. Malaria, tuberculosis, cholera, pertussis, influenza, and gonorrhea are some examples of re-emerging diseases.

What are factors contributing to the emergence of diseases?

Several factors are contributing to the emergence and re-emergence of diseases. Some of them are listed below.

1. Climate and Environmental Changes:

Humans are cutting trees and clearing natural habitats on a very large scale. This has forced wild animals to come closer to human habitats. This displacement has increased the possibility for causative agents to breach the species barrier between animals and humans.

For example, Lyme disease, Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS), Lassa fever all emerged when humans began encountering the arachnid vector (For Lyme disease) or rodent host (for HPS and Lassa fever) of the causative agents in greater number than ever before.


Global Warming is also indirectly responsible for the outbreak of diseases. This is because global warming leads to unpredictable and extreme climatic changes such as floods, tsunami, cyclones, etc. These changes then help in the rapid transmission of diseases such as malaria, dengue, cholera, etc.

2. Uncontrolled Urbanization and Population Displacements:

Urbanization often crowds humans and increases exposure to microbes. Crowding of the population leads to unsanitary conditions and also hinders the effective implementation of adequate medical care. Thus, enabling more widespread transmission and propagation of pathogens.

For example, the re-emergence of diseases such as diphtheria and whooping cough (Pertussis) is related to inadequate vaccination of the population.

Land Development and the exploration or destruction of natural habitats have increased the likelihood of human exposure to new pathogens and may put selective pressure on pathogens to adapt to new hosts and changing environments.

For example, the spread of Lyme diseases in New England probably was due to the ecological distribution that eliminated predators of deer. An increase in the deer population and deer tick populations provided a favorable situation for pathogens to spread among humans.

3. Human Behavior and Activities:

The food processing and supply centers, which carry out processes such as handling, cutting, refrigeration of food, and other treatments have the potential of becoming breeding grounds for foodborne microbial diseases.

For example, the emergence of diseases such as hemolytic uremic syndrome was related to the consumption of raw or uncooked beef and unpasteurized apple juice.

The unnatural and unprotected sexual practices have also created a higher risk of getting infected with sexually transmitted diseases(STDs). Diseases like AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), Gonorrhea, and Syphilis spread through unprotected sexual practices.

4. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance:

The key factor responsible for the rise in drug-resistant pathogens has been the excessive or inappropriate use of antimicrobial drugs or therapy. Moreover, the indiscriminate use of broad-spectrum antibiotics has also led to antimicrobial drug resistance.

For example, Tuberculosis has re-emerged due to the evolution of the causative bacteria. The bacteria have acquired resistance to the antibiotics used to treat Tuberculosis (either through mutation or genetic exchange).


Immunosuppression, either by another disease agent such as the AIDS virus or by drugs taken upon organ transplantation, increases the number of individuals susceptible to new pathogens.

Also Read: How do Bacteria become Resistant to Antibiotics?

So, now you know what is emerging and re-emerging diseases? And, what are the various factors contributing to their emergence and re-emergence? So that is all for now, meet you in my next article. Keep Reading, Keep Exploring, and Keep Sharing your Knowledge, and above all BE CURIOUS. 🙂

Also Read:11 Things Parents should know about giving Antibiotics.


  • (US), National, and Biological Study. ‘Understanding Emerging And Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases. National Institutes of Health (US) (2007): n. pag. Web. 3 Oct. 2015.

11 Things Parents should know about giving Antibiotics.

Antibiotics have been around for many years and if your baby is 3 years or few months old then it is evident that you may get confronted with antibiotics 4 to 5 times in a year and may have fears and doubts about antibiotics. Moreover, many of you may have a habit of taking antibiotics on an old prescription. These habits are not good for your baby’s health. However, if antibiotics are used wisely, they can provide significant benefits. So, here I have put together 11 things that parents should know about giving antibiotics to their children.

1. Never Prescribe On Your Own.

Parents usually have a habit of self-prescribing antibiotics to their babies. This is a terrible habit and may prove harmful to the health of your baby. Always consult your doctor before taking any kind of antibiotics. Your doctor will decide what form of treatment is best suited for your baby and if prescribing an antibiotic is necessary, he will then select the one that will work best for treating your specific infection.

always-complete-the-medication2. Always Complete The Medication.

Parents think that taking antibiotics for a longer period may cause some side effects to their baby. Because of this thing in their mind, they stop the medication when symptoms seem to go away. Stopping the medication may allow some of the bacteria to continue to live and become resistant to the antibiotic prescribed to your baby. This will make it more difficult to treat any subsequent infections he will acquire in the future.

3. Never Save Your Medication For Reuse.

If you think you can keep and reuse leftover antibiotics then you are totally wrong. Antibiotics should not be taken to treat any other illnesses. Do not merely take them when you feel sick. Moreover, the antibiotic that is in powder form gets expired within 7 days of their first use.

Also Read: How do Bacteria become Resistant to Antibiotics?

4. Prepare The Dosage Properly.

Mostly the antibiotics for infants are in the form of syrup powder, which is taken after mixing them with water. There is always a sign for measuring the volume of water to be mixed for preparing the syrup. Check this sign properly before purchasing the medicines and never exceed this level while making the syrup.

5. Ask Before Taking Antibiotics.

Some medicines come in the form of “sustained release”. Thus, you shouldn’t break or grind medicines before giving them. So, always ask your doctor before using them.

prepare-the-dosage-properly6. Always Give The Correct Dosage.

The correct dosage is a very important factor in antibiotic effectiveness. So, never measure the dosage using spoons (in the case of syrups) and remember the repetition time of the medication.

7. Discuss Drug Allergy Running In The Family.

If you, your baby, or any member of your family have any kind of drug allergy then discuss it with your doctor. The allergic reaction can produce rashes, itching, or difficulty in breathing in severe cases. Some of them can be fatal. Tell him if your baby is taking antibiotics or any medication over a very long period. It will help him in prescribing the most appropriate medication.

store-them-at-right-place8. Store Them At Right Place.

Keep antibiotics away from your baby’s reach. Also, keep them away from direct sunlight and moisture. In hot weather, you can also store them in refrigerators.

9. Do Not Pressurize Him.

Many parents have a habit of pressurizing their doctor to write antibiotics in the prescription for their baby. This may be because they think that antibiotics can cure every disease. But, this is not true. Antibiotics work only against infections caused by bacteria. They do not work with viral infections, such as colds, flu, and most sore throats. Moreover, many of them don’t know that 80% of baby infections are viral which do not need antibiotics.


10. Ask Doctor About Dosage Time.

Some medicines are taken before meals and some are taken after meals. So, always ask your doctor each and every detail before leaving the clinic.

11. Sharing Is Not Good For Health.

Never share your medication with other such as eye/ear drops. Because by doing this, there is a possibility of transmission of infection or pathogenic particles, or antibiotic resistance.

So now, parents know what they need to do before giving antibiotics to their children. However, these things imply to adults also. 🙂. So that is all for now, meet you in my next article. Keep Reading, Keep Exploring, and Keep Sharing your Knowledge, and above all BE CURIOUS. 🙂

Also Read:How Diseases are Emerging and Re-Emerging?