Fifty years ago people believed that the war of humankind against infectious diseases was virtually over. They thought that science had won over diseases such as pneumonia, whooping cough, polio, and…
We all know that DNA acts as a genetic material in most of the organisms on this planet earth. However, it is also clear that RNA also acts a genetic material, but only in some viruses. During the evolution, nature has considered DNA over RNA as genetic material, because DNA is more stable and more efficient than RNA.
Several Bacteria (like Escherichia Coli) exhibit a form of sexual reproduction called Bacterial Conjugation. It is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells.
Explants are excised pieces of plant parts or tissues. They may be taken from any part of the plant body e.g., leaf, stem, root etc. A healthy and disease-free explant is necessary for the success of tissue culture.