Science Dictionary

Here at Science Samhita, we aim to write concise and understandable scientific articles.  Due to such concise nature of our articles, some of the technical or scientific terms are not always explained properly. So, here we have a list of the scientific terms used, and a brief definition of what they mean. Contact us if you think some other terms should also be  included here!


A

Adaptive Immunity
Allergic Reactions
Antibiotics


Adaptive Immunity

Adaptive immunity is capable of recognising and selectively eliminating specific foreign microorganisms and molecules. It is induced by the exposure to microbes and foreign particles. Adaptive Immunity counters an infection with a specific immune response exactly made for the invading pathogen in the form of a large population of B and T lymphocytes that specifically recognise the invaders.


Allergic Reactions

Allergic reactions are overreactions of the body’s natural defence system that helps fight infections. Generally, our immune system protects us from harmful substances. But, in an allergic reaction, it fights against usually harmless substances (dust, pollen etc.) which are called allergens. Symptoms of allergic response may vary from mild to severe, depending upon the frequency of exposure of body to the same antigen.


Antibiotics

Antibiotics are microbial products or their derivatives that can kill susceptible microorganisms or inhibit their growth. Among microorganisms, they are only effective against bacteria, fungi or parasites and do not show any effect against the virus. The first natural antibiotic was penicillin, it was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928.

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