Antibiotic Resistance is a term that appears to be like some super terms used in some science fiction movies. But this term is something from which we should be afraid of because antibiotic resistance and spread of drug-resistant pathogens are one of the most serious and dangerous threats to public health in this 21st century. Continue reading What are the different Causes of Antibiotic Resistance?
With the use of high–yielding varieties of crops, the use of fertilizers and pesticides has increased a lot. Excess fertilizers may mix with surface water and may get drained into water bodies (surface runoff). These fertilizers overstimulate the growth of algae, causing eutrophication, and robbing the water of dissolved oxygen vital to other aquatic life. During the past century, lakes in many parts of the earth have been severely eutrophied by sewage and agricultural and industrial wastes. Continue reading What is Eutrophication? What are its Causes & Effects?
The cells of an embryo get their roles when they are capable of differentiating autonomously in a neutral environment such as petri dish or test tube. (the environment is neutral with respect to the development pathway.) This process of giving different roles to embryonic cells is called Cell Specification. Continue reading How do cells in Embryo get their Roles to Play?
In 1868, T. H. Huxley described protoplasm as the “physical basis of life”. Protoplasm is a clear, colourless and jelly-like substance which seemed to make up the contents of the cell. It was also described as “substance of life” or “living material”. Continue reading What is the physical basis of life?
Antitranspirants are substances applied to the plants for the purpose of reducing transpiration (water loss) without causing a significant effect on other plant processes, such as photosynthesis & growth. They have been used with some success in horticulture, especially in the ornamental industry. Continue reading What are Antitranspirants? How do they Reduce Water Loss in Plants?
From the beginning of time, people have tried to understand aging and processes associated with the biology of aging. Many scientists believe that aging results from the repetitive damage caused to our body cells. The everyday metabolic activities that usually sustain our life but also create “metabolic stress”, which over time, results in damage to our bodies. Some of these metabolic activities result in the production of radicals and which may cause harmful damage to our body cells. Continue reading Free Radicals: What is their role in making us old?
A most common and important source of genetic variability is known to be present uniformly throughout the genome is termed Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms or SNPs. Interest in SNPs lies in the fact that these polymorphisms may be responsible for the differences in disease susceptibility, drug metabolism and response to environmental factors between individuals. Even, if they are not directly responsible for the disease, they serve as genetic markers for a nearby locus that might be responsible. Continue reading What are SNPs? Why are Scientists interested in them?
An average Human cell (diploid) contains about 6.4 billion base pairs of DNA divided among 46 chromosomes. The length of each base pair is about 0.34 nm. Therefore, if the DNA molecule in a diploid cell were laid out end to end, the total length of DNA would be approximately 2 meters. Continue reading How a 2 meters long DNA is fitted into a 2 micrometers Nucleus?