What is the physical basis of life? 

Protoplasm is the essence of life. We can refer to all the constituents of the cell collectively by the term Protoplasm. It shows all those activities that are characteristic of life.


What are Antitranspirants? How do they Reduce Water Loss in Plants?

Antitranspirants are the materials or chemicals which are capable of reducing the water loss from plant leaves. Almost 99 per cent of the water absorbed by the plant is lost in transpiration. Since water loss normally occurs through the stomatal pores in the leaves, anti-transpirants are usually foliar sprays.


What are SNPs? Why are Scientists interested in them?

A most common and important source of genetic variability is known to be present uniformly throughout the genome is termed Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms or SNPs. Interest in SNPs lies in the fact that these polymorphisms may be responsible for the differences in disease susceptibility, drug metabolism and response to environmental factors between individuals. Even, if they are not directly responsible for the disease, they serve as genetic markers for a nearby locus that might be responsible.


How a 2 meters long DNA is fitted into a 2 micrometers Nucleus?

An average Human cell (diploid) contains about 6.4 billion base pairs of DNA divided among 46 chromosomes. The length of each base pair is about 0.34 nm. Therefore, if the DNA molecule in a diploid cell were laid out end to end, the total length of DNA would be approximately 2 meters.Since the diameter of a typical cell nucleus is only 10 μm, it is obvious for us to know that how is it possible to fit 2 meters of DNA in such small space without getting tangled up. The answer lies in the remarkable manner in which a DNA molecule is packaged.


How do Bacteria become Resistant to Antibiotics?

Bacteria often become resistant through different kinds of mechanisms. One kind of mechanism is never confined to any specific class of antibiotics. Different resistance mechanisms are used in different bacteria to confront the same antibiotics. Prevention of Drug's Entry, Driving out the drug, and altering or degrading the antibiotics are some of the examples of mechanisms of antibiotic resistance employed by bacteria.


Who discovered that DNA is the Genetic Material?

The discovery of DNA as the genetic material was one of the major achievements of science in the 20th century. This discovery made DNA, the chemical basis of heredity. It took almost 80 years for scientists to prove that DNA is the genetic material. Early works: In 1869, Johann Friedrich Miescher, a young Swiss medical student, discovered… Continue reading Who discovered that DNA is the Genetic Material?

Biology · Biotechnology

What is meant by Cellular Totipotency?

Cellular Totipotency is the innate ability of a single cell to produce all cell types and to organize them into an entire organism when cultured in a suitable culture medium at an appropriate temperature and aeration conditions. Plant spores and Zygote are examples of single cells that show cellular totipotency. Totipotency was introduced by a… Continue reading What is meant by Cellular Totipotency?