With the beginning of civilisations and human settlements, the consumption of food by the human population increased and thus, the need to preserve excess foods became essential for survival. Since then, many traditional and household methods of food preservation have evolved to limit food spoilage. Such as cooking, the addition of spices and fermentation. Continue reading 11 Methods of Food Preservation used by Food Industry
From the beginning of time, people have tried to understand aging and processes associated with the biology of aging. Many scientists believe that aging results from the repetitive damage caused to our body cells. The everyday metabolic activities that usually sustain our life but also create “metabolic stress”, which over time, results in damage to our bodies. Some of these metabolic activities result in the production of radicals and which may cause harmful damage to our body cells. Continue reading Free Radicals: What is their role in making us old?
A most common and important source of genetic variability is known to be present uniformly throughout the genome is termed Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms or SNPs. Interest in SNPs lies in the fact that these polymorphisms may be responsible for the differences in disease susceptibility, drug metabolism and response to environmental factors between individuals. Even, if they are not directly responsible for the disease, they serve as genetic markers for a nearby locus that might be responsible. Continue reading What are SNPs? Why are Scientists interested in them?
The discovery that genetic information is coded along the length of DNA was one of the major achievements of science in the 20th century. This polymeric molecule, DNA, is the chemical basis of heredity and is the fundamental units of genetic information.
Continue reading Who discovered that DNA is the Genetic Material?
Antibiotics have been around for many years and if your baby is 3 years or few months old then it is evident that you may get confronted to antibiotics 4 to 5 times in a year and may have fears and doubts about antibiotics. Moreover, many of you may have a habit of taking antibiotics on an old prescription. These habits are not good for your baby’s health. However, if antibiotics are used wisely, they can provide significant benefits.
Southern Blotting is an elegant technique that can be used to identify the locations of genes and other DNA sequences on restriction fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. This technique is named after the Edwin Southern (1975) who developed it. Continue reading What is Southern Blotting? How it is used to identify Specific DNA Sequences?
In Industrial Microbiology, microbes are used to synthesise a number of products valuable to human beings. This Industry has provided products that have profoundly changed our lives and life spans. These products include beverages, food additives, products for human and animal health, and biofuels. Continue reading 11 Industrial Products that are derived from Microbes.
Antibiotic Resistance is a term that appears to be like some super terms used in some science fiction movies. But this term is something from which we should be afraid of because antibiotic resistance and spread of drug-resistant pathogens are one of the most serious and dangerous threats to public health in this 21st century. Continue reading What are the different Causes of Antibiotic Resistance?
With the use of high–yielding varieties of crops, the use of fertilizers and pesticides has increased a lot. Excess fertilizers may mix with surface water and may get drained into water bodies (surface runoff). These fertilizers overstimulate the growth of algae, causing eutrophication, and robbing the water of dissolved oxygen vital to other aquatic life. During the past century, lakes in many parts of the earth have been severely eutrophied by sewage and agricultural and industrial wastes. Continue reading What is Eutrophication? What are its Causes & Effects?
The cells of an embryo get their roles when they are capable of differentiating autonomously in a neutral environment such as petri dish or test tube. (the environment is neutral with respect to the development pathway.) This process of giving different roles to embryonic cells is called Cell Specification. Continue reading How do cells in Embryo get their Roles to Play?
In 1868, T. H. Huxley described protoplasm as the “physical basis of life”. Protoplasm is a clear, colourless and jelly-like substance which seemed to make up the contents of the cell. It was also described as “substance of life” or “living material”. Continue reading What is the physical basis of life?
The concept that the cell is the basic unit of life is known as Cell Theory. It is one of the most fundamental generalisations of biology and ranks with Charles Darwin’s theory of organic evolution and T.H. Morgan’s theory of the gene of modern biology. Continue reading What is Cell Theory?