An average Human cell (diploid) contains about 6.4 billion base pairs of DNA divided among 46 chromosomes. The length of each base pair is about 0.34 nm. Therefore, if the DNA molecule in a diploid cell were laid out end to end, the total length of DNA would be approximately 2 meters. Continue reading How a 2 meters long DNA is fitted into a 2 micrometers Nucleus?
It is a well-known fact that DNA acts as a genetic material in most of the organisms on this planet earth. However, it is also clear that RNA also acts as a genetic material, but only in some viruses (for example, Tobacco Mosaic Viruses, QB Bacteriophage, etc.).
Continue reading Why Nature Preferred DNA over RNA?
Antibiotics have been around for many years and if your baby is 3 years or few months old then it is evident that you may get confronted to antibiotics 4 to 5 times in a year and may have fears and doubts about antibiotics. Moreover, many of you may have a habit of taking antibiotics on an old prescription. These habits are not good for your baby’s health. However, if antibiotics are used wisely, they can provide significant benefits.
The Algae growing as planktons, benthos, epiphytes and in other common aquatic habitats provide a major source of food to small fishes, aquatic amphibians, and other animals. Since man is dependent on fishes to supplement his diet, the algae prove to be a very important indirect source of human food. The practice of direct consumption of algae as human food is also present around the world. A list of more than hundred species can be made which provide direct food to the human beings, especially to the coastal people of the world. Continue reading 11 Algae that are Used as Human Food.
Auxins include all those chemical substances which promote the growth of stems or coleoptiles sections and decapitated coleoptiles, but in same concentrations are incapable of causing the growth of a whole, undamaged plant. They occur naturally in the plant parts and are also chemically synthesized. The principal naturally occurring auxin is Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) and Indole-3-Butyric Acid (IBA) is a synthetic auxin. Continue reading How do Auxins affect Plant growth?
The Mesozoic Era started about 225 million years prior to the present era, the amphibians were declining after a long period of supremacy among the animals and the reptiles were gradually replacing them. Many of them became very large fearsome and came to dominate the animal life practically everywhere. As a result, giant reptiles, dinosaurs, and other monstrous beasts become very abundant and spread into all habitats. For this reason, the Mesozoic era is also called the Age of Reptiles or the Age of Dinosaurs. Continue reading Mesozoic Era – the Age of Reptiles.
The Kingdom Protista includes diverse kinds of predominantly water-dwelling unicellular eukaryotic microorganism. Protists, like Monerans, have an immense reproductive potential. In an optimal environment, they may reproduce several times a day. This is mainly by asexual reproduction, using the process of mitosis. However, they also reproduce sexually. Continue reading Sexual Reproduction – An Important Innovation of the Early Protists.
There are over 100,000 species of fungi. Some of them are one-celled like the yeasts; others are complex like mushrooms and some of them are called imperfect fungi. Fungi are the major decomposers (besides bacteria) and some parasitic forms of fungi may also cause diseases in plants and animals. Continue reading Why are some fungi grouped under “fungi imperfecti”?
Blue Green Algae also called as Cyanobacteria are one of the most successful organisms on this planet. They are gram-negative (do not take up gram stain) and photosynthetic microorganism. They have successfully survived for over 3 billion years on our planet earth. Initially, they were classified Plantae due to their ability to photosynthesis, but later they were moved to the Monera Kingdom. Continue reading Why Blue Green Algae are not included in Plantae Kingdom?
Long pepper (Piper longum), sometimes called Indian long pepper (pipli), is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae. It is cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. The dried fruit of Piper longum is a slender, aromatic plant with creeping jointed stems and perennial woody roots. It is used to make medicine. Indian Long pepper has a taste similar to, but hotter than, that of its close relative Piper nigrum. Continue reading Indian Long Pepper: A Potential Cancer treatment Drug.
We can easily distinguish a living animal from a living plant in our surroundings. We do not find any difficulty in identifying an animal as long as we see it moving, eating and alive. When it comes to plants, we have an image of a structure having spread out appearance with green parts like leaves in our mind. So, to keep it as simple as it was, Carolus Linnaeus classified all the organisms of the world into two Kingdoms i.e. Plantae and Animalia. Continue reading Why is the Two-Kingdom Classification System Inadequate?